A Conceptual Framework for Lean Construction and Blockchain Synergy

Algan Tezel1, Dimosthenis Kifokeris2, Carlos Formoso3, Lauri Koskela4 & Christian Koch5

1Lecturer, Department of Civil Engineering, Aston University, UK, [email protected], 0003-3903-6126
2Assistant Professor, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, [email protected],
3Professor, Building Innovation Research Unit (NORIE), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, [email protected],
4Professor, Department of Architecture and 3D Design, University of Huddersfield, UK, [email protected], 2281
5Professor, Department of the Built Environment, Aalborg University, Denmark, [email protected],


Blockchain is a distributed ledger technology referring to decentralized databases existing across multiple locations and participants, in which the need for intermediariesto process, validate or authenticate transactions is reduced or eliminated. Such transactions are synchronously held by computer nodes in distributed copies, with cryptographic signatures validated through consensus protocols and transparency achieved through peer-to-peer transactional access among the nodes. Blockchain-based applications can be preferred over centralized databases on the basis of high levels of trust, data security, immutability, transparency, and multi-user consensus protocols. There is growing interest in blockchain in the built environment, with a focus on procurement, the management of supply chain project-life cycle, smart cities, intelligent systems, sustainability, and decentralized organizations. However, there is little discussion on whether and how blockchain will affect the advances in lean construction (LC) and vice versa. This paper therefore proposes a framework that establishes interactions between blockchain and lean construction, which can potentially facilitate the implementation of both. It is based on a synthetic literature review. The results indicate that blockchain can facilitate the implementation of LC (e.g., recording and retrieving of Last Planner data), and vice versa (e.g., value stream mapping guiding the integration of blockchain with processes).


Lean construction, distributed ledger technology, blockchain, smart contracts, framework, synergy.



Tezel, A. , Kifokeris, D. , Formoso, C. , Koskela, L. & Koch, C. 2022. A Conceptual Framework for Lean Construction and Blockchain Synergy, Proc. 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC) , 576-587.

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