Location-Based Work Sampling

Cristina T. Pérez1, Stephanie Salling2 & Søren Wandahl3

1Postdoc, Department of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark, [email protected],
2Research Assistant, Department of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark, [email protected],
3Professor, Department of Civil & Architectural Engineering, Aarhus University, Denmark, [email protected],


Previous studies have applied the Work Sampling (WS) technique in different job sites to determine how workers employ their time in relation to a taxonomy of various work activities. However, no other significant contribution has been discussed for including location information of the work activities. This study added a geographic location to each random WS observation for a more comprehensive work efficiency analysis. In this paper, an implementation analysis was presented based on the findings from a case study. The research process followed four steps: (1) clarifying the categories of the activities; (2) deciding the confidence interval; (3) collecting and extracting data; and (4) analyzing the data. For adding location data to the technique, the authors used the geographic coordinates provided by smartwatches used by the research team connected to two Global Navigations Satellite Systems (GNSS), and the coordinates obtained from photos taken for each observation. Each observation made contained the following information: (1) photo; (2) timestamp; (3) trade observed; (4) work category; and (5) geographic coordinates, consequently, workspace category. This paper presents as the main contribution an adaption of the WS technique, named Location-based Work Sampling (LBWS), which can provide a better understanding of the ongoing activities’ behavior.


Location-based Management (LBM), Visual Management, Waste, Work Sampling, Geographic location observations.



Pérez, C. T. , Salling, S. & Wandahl, S. 2022. Location-Based Work Sampling, Proc. 30th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC) , 187-198.

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