A Line-of-Balance Based Schedule Planning and Control System

Jouko Kankainen1 & Olli Seppänen2

1Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2100, FIN-02015 TKK, Finland, E-mail [email protected]
2PhD Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Helsinki University of Technology. Technology Manager Dynamic System Solutions Inc., Pohjoinen Rautatiekatu 21B, FIN-00100 Helsinki, Finland, E-mail [email protected], website www.dynassol.com


This paper describes a line-of-balance based schedule planning and control system, and its connection with lean construction methods, using a commercial software package called DYNAProject™. DYNAProject™ has been developed in collaboration with the Finnish construction industry. The main principle is that constraints on schedule tasks are taken into account as early as possible during the project-planning phase. Line – of – balance allows the planning of the workflow between trades so that interruptions are minimized. The procurement schedule is integrated very early on with the master schedule so that constraints on material availability, labor, contracts, and engineering are taken into account. The probability of interruptions is checked by running a Monte-Carlo simulation of the line-of-balance schedule and the results are used in refining the schedule. During the implementation phase, control features in DYNAProject™ allow easy input of actual completion data and forecasting of future problems. DYNAProject™ is the first comprehensive line-of-balance tool in the market and has been widely tested in Finland. Benefits of the system include allowing the user to plan a feasible schedule that is not sensitive to disturbances. Managers can see graphically the trade-off between schedule duration and sensitivity to disturbances. Buffers can be planned to minimize the effect of workflow variability. During the implementation phase, the schedule can be implemented as planned. Effects of deviations can be assessed immediately and the effectiveness of available control actions can be evaluated. The fast adoption of the system in Finland proves its added value compared with earlier scheduling systems.


Line of balance, schedule planning, schedule control



Kankainen, J. & Seppänen, O. 2003. A Line-of-Balance Based Schedule Planning and Control System, 11th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction , 132-143. doi.org/

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