Transformation-Flow-Value Views of a Colorado School District’S Prototyping Strategies

Bolivar Senior1 & Bennett Nafe2

1PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Construction Management, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Telephone (970) 491-7337. E-Mail: [email protected]
2MS, Colorado State University. Project Manager, Foothills Commercial Builders, Centennial, Colorado, USA. Telephone (720) 281-3138. E-Mail: [email protected]


Key issues and strategies used by a school district in Colorado for the procurement and implementation of prototype designs for its buildings were examined in the exploratory study presented here. School construction prototyping involves the design and building of a project with the deliberate purpose of repeating it multiple times while allowing its constant improvement. The practice has been reported as having failed when attempted in several states, but it is currently a successful, standard practice of the researched school district. Issues were separated into those significant to the school district and those significant to the prototype designer. To clarify their taxonomy, issues were grouped into categories consequent to Koskela’s process paradigm of Transformation, Flow and Value.


Standardization, customization, school prototypes, TFV paradigm.



Senior, B. & Nafe, B. 2016, 'Transformation-Flow-Value Views of a Colorado School District’S Prototyping Strategies' In:, 24th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction. Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 20-22 Jul 2016.

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