The Toyota Production System is so successful that people look for ways to apply the lean production ideas and methods in organization settings. One of those ways is the force-fitting of Engineer Taiichi Ohno's seven wastes to organizations and projects. While organizations and projects manipulate materiel, they are better characterized by their actions of accomplishing something together - coordinating action, learning, and innovating. The seven wastes don't address those actions. Attempts to add to the seven wastes have to date broken the Ohno taxonomy. The authors propose a novel set of distinctions on the principal sources ofwaste in organizational settings.
Leadership, project management, and lean construction.