This paper addresses the development and use of last planner system (LPS) implementation guidance. Lean construction (LC) as operationalised by tools including the LPS has been deployed over 25 years with documented successful outcomes. Yet, the literature also reveals widespread implementation failures, in part due to a guidance shortfall. To address this issue, guidance principles were developed, informed by longitudinal action research (AR) undertaken over 18 months investigating LPS usage on 7 sequential projects on the ongoing refurbishment of a liquified natural gas (LNG) plant in North West Australia. AR, the main research method used, combined continuous experimentation with analysis using a variety of data and evidence sources. By examining the process and outcomes of the action, explanations and further ideas are forthcoming, setting the platform for new action. The paper describes further longitudinal LPS implementation aided by the developed guidance on a £1.5 billion UK infrastructure project. The research contributes to knowledge with ongoing LPS guidance development, through testing and refinement with AR cycles. Further guidance into the use and melding of off-site manufacture and lean construction practice is also being developed and deployed. The limitations are that only LNG refurbishment and infrastructure projects have been researched to date.
Lean construction (LC), Last planner system (LPS), lean construction guidance, Action Research (AR)