Applicability of Value Stream Mapping and Work Sampling in an Industrial Project in India

Lavina Susan Pothen1 & Shobha Ramalingam2

1Executive – Design, Oberoi Realty, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India. +91 9008420361, (Author for Correspondence)
2Assistant Professor, National Institute of Construction Management and Research (NICMAR), Pune, Maharashtra, India. 02066859122,


Poor productivity and inefficiencies in the production process are alarming issues in the construction industry that also erode the value proposition of projects. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Work Sampling (WS) are two important techniques in the ‘Lean’ philosophy that aim at reducing and minimizing ‘waste’ in the life cycle process of activities and thereby aide in maximizing productivity. In this paper, we discuss the implementation challenges and benefits of these two techniques in an industrial project in India through an action-based research methodology. While VSM was adopted for Vacuum Dewatering Concrete Flooring works, tour based WS was done for block-work activity. VSM helped to visualize the entire process and reduce time overrun by 2.5 days. Alternative materials were cost estimated and compared to reduce cost overrun. The WS technique helped the contractor to assess the productivity rate and identify reasons for below average productivity. Subsequent corrective action plans and recommendations led to reduce non-value added wastes and improve performance. This study lays a foundation for practitioners to systematically adopt these lean techniques in practice and thereby optimize the process, reduce wastes and enhance productivity.


Value Stream Mapping, Work Sampling, Lean Principles, Process Optimization, Industrial Project.



Pothen, L.S. & Ramalingam, S. 2018, 'Applicability of Value Stream Mapping and Work Sampling in an Industrial Project in India' In:, 26th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction. Chennai, India, 18-20 Jul 2018. pp 516-526

Download: BibTeX | RIS Format