3d Concrete Printing in the Service of Lean Construction.

Fatima El Sakka1 & Farook Hamzeh2

1Master’s Student, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon,
2Assistant Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering, American University of Beirut, Lebanon, + 961350000 Ext 3616, fax: + 61 1 744462,


With the current conventional construction practices, the application of lean thinking is deemed challenging. Yet the introduction of 3D printing to the construction industry seems to bolster the lean philosophy goals. The literature, however, has not yet sufficiently addressed the correlation between 3D concrete printing and lean construction. Thus, this research aims at uncovering the complementary relationship between the two. The study is based on mapping the value stream of the construction process of a residential house using data extracted from an actual project. Value stream mapping is conducted for both methods of construction, the conventional method and 3D concrete printing. Comparing the value stream maps revealed a 60% reduction in the production lead time. Further analysis unveiled reduction in construction cost, especially labour cost, minimization of different types of waste as well as improvement of quality. Such achievements satisfy the essential goals of a lean process including higher quality, lower cost, and shorter lead time.


Lean construction, 3D concrete printing, traditional construction, value stream mapping



El Sakka, F. & Hamzeh, F. 2017, '3d Concrete Printing in the Service of Lean Construction.' In:, 25th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction. Heraklion, Greece, 9-12 Jul 2017. pp 781-788

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