Methods for Production Leveling – Transfer From Lean Production to Lean Construction

Marco Binninger1, Janosch Dlouhy2, Svenja Oprach3 & Shervin Haghsheno4

1Research Fellow, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, +49-721-608-44124,
2Research Fellow, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, +49-721-608-42168,
3M.Sc. Student, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, +49-721-608-43650,
4Professor, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany, +49-721-608-42646,


Leveling of work packages is a basic requirement for production planning, and an important part of Lean Management. It offers the advantage of a steady utilization of resources and leads to a constant rhythm by using a defined sequence of work packages. Currently leveling of activities in construction processes is mainly applied by defining Takt units and by matching the required workload to the available workforce. Reasons for this are the traditional division of work into trades, interfaces regarding warranties, project based organization, outsourcing, or the lack of optimization of individual activities. Experience shows that apart from this, leveling of construction processes by currently used methods cannot adequately respond to unexpected disruptions. As a consequence resources are overloaded and project execution is delayed. In comparison to this stationary production industries are better equipped to react to disruptions with suitable tools such as the use of additional labor and supermarket delivery systems or through rotating work shifts using a qualification matrix. This article brings together the results of a theoretical analysis, which investigated the transferability of selected tools for leveling of work processes from stationary production industries to the construction industry. It is determined that a number of tools can be transferred to the construction industry. It is shown how these tools must be adapted to be effectively implemented, and which changes to the basic framework are required in order to achieve this. In the future the results of this analysis must be validated by case studies. For this the required theoretical basis is developed in this paper. The article shows furthermore the potential for increased reliability and a higher efficiency of production systems in the construction industry through a higher degree of leveling activities.


Takt, work packages, leveling of work



Binninger, M. , Dlouhy, J. , Oprach, S. & Haghsheno, S. 2016, 'Methods for Production Leveling – Transfer From Lean Production to Lean Construction' In:, 24th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction. Boston, USA, 20-22 Jul 2016.

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